Local History

The history of the Germans in the Baltic

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at 1000 in. Chr.

The tribes of the Estonians and Livs (Finno-Ugrian) and the cures, Latvians and Lithuanians (Indo-Europeans) settle on the Baltic Sea.

Ende of 12. Century

Low German merchants and missionaries to build on the Daugava trade- and missions.


The German Order was established definitively before Acre


The pope confirmed the order and gives the Rittem the black cross on a white coat

The Bremer canon is Bishop Albert of Buxhoeveden of Livonia.


Bishop Albert founded Riga. Beginning of the violent subjugation of the nations by the Livonian Order, the 1236 rises in the Teutonic Order.

at 1285

Riga, Reval, Dorpat and are members of the Hanseatic League.


Union of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the Kingdom of Poland. Lithuania allocates up to 20. Jh. the history of Poland.


The “Marie Country Livland” (today's Latvia and Estonia) reports to the Teutonic Order and is part of the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation.


Beginning of the Reformation in Livonia.


In the Livonian war against the Muscovites, the Order of land divided into the areas of Estonia (1561-1710 to Sweden), Livonia (1561-1621 to Poland-Lithuania, 1621-1710 to Sweden) and the Duchy of Courland (1562-1795 under Polish suzerainty).


The “Privilegium Sigismundi Augusti” secures the stands right on the German language, the German courts and the Protestant faith.


Foundation of the University of Dorpat by King Gustav Adolf of Sweden.


The Northern War between Sweden and Russia, the Baltic region devastated.


Estonia, Livonia (1710) and Kurland (1795) the “German provinces” Russia. In the peace of Nystadt (1721) Peter the Great secures the cities and the knights privileges. They lead to autonomous self-government in city and country.


J. G. Herder taught in Riga. End 18. Jh: Influx of German university graduates, Theologians and artisans in the Baltic provinces.


Founding of the University of Tartu (Tartu), it will be apparent from eminent researchers and scholars.


Abolition of serfdom in Courland, Estonia and Livonia by an order of knighthood.


First test entire African song festival in Tartu / Tartu.


First Gesamtlettisches Song Festival in Riga. National awakening.

End 19. Century

Russification of schools, Authorities, Management – Industrialization.


First Russian Revolution, besonders violently in the Ostseeprovinzen.


The collapse of the Russian and the German Empire in World War II ended, the German supremacy in the Baltic provinces of Estonia, Livonia and Courland.


Declaration of independence in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.


War of liberation against the Red Army with the participation of the German Balts Balts in the regiment (Estonia) and in the Baltic country's military (Latvia).


Recognition of the independence of the republics of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania by the Soviet Union. Emigration wave of German Balts after radical expropriation. Minority rights in the Baltics.


Hitler-Stalin Pact. Resettlement of the German Balts in the areas of Posen and West Prussia in conquered Poland.


Dispersal of the German Balts as a result of the II. World War II. Cohesion of unions in Germany, Europe and overseas.


Occupied and annexed the Baltic Soviet Republics.

21. August 1991

Restoration of independence of the Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania.


Digital literature: Historical sources on the history of Livonia, Estonia and Courland