The history of the Germans in the Baltic

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at 1000 in. Chr.

The tribes of the Estonians and Livs (Finno-Ugrian) and the cures, Latvians and Lithuanians (Indo-Europeans) settle on the Baltic Sea.

Ende of 12. Century

Low German merchants and missionaries to build on the Daugava trade- and missions.

1198

The German Order was established definitively before Acre

1199

The pope confirmed the order and gives the Rittem the black cross on a white coat

The Bremer canon is Bishop Albert of Buxhoeveden of Livonia.

1201

Bishop Albert founded Riga. Beginning of the violent subjugation of the nations by the Livonian Order, the 1236 rises in the Teutonic Order.

at 1285

Riga, Reval, Dorpat and are members of the Hanseatic League.

1386

Union of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the Kingdom of Poland. Lithuania allocates up to 20. Jh. the history of Poland.

1346-1561

The “Marie Country Livland” (today's Latvia and Estonia) reports to the Teutonic Order and is part of the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation.

1524

Beginning of the Reformation in Livonia.

1558-1583

In the Livonian war against the Muscovites, the Order of land divided into the areas of Estonia (1561-1710 to Sweden), Livonia (1561-1621 to Poland-Lithuania, 1621-1710 to Sweden) and the Duchy of Courland (1562-1795 under Polish suzerainty).

1561

The “Privilegium Sigismundi Augusti” secures the stands right on the German language, the German courts and the Protestant faith.

1632

Foundation of the University of Dorpat by King Gustav Adolf of Sweden.

1700-1721

The Northern War between Sweden and Russia, the Baltic region devastated.

1710/95-1918

Estonia, Livonia (1710) and Kurland (1795) the “German provinces” Russia. In the peace of Nystadt (1721) Peter the Great secures the cities and the knights privileges. They lead to autonomous self-government in city and country.

1764-1769

J. G. Herder taught in Riga. End 18. Jh: Influx of German university graduates, Theologians and artisans in the Baltic provinces.

1802

Founding of the University of Tartu (Tartu), it will be apparent from eminent researchers and scholars.

1816-1819

Abolition of serfdom in Courland, Estonia and Livonia by an order of knighthood.

1869

First test entire African song festival in Tartu / Tartu.

1873

First Gesamtlettisches Song Festival in Riga. National awakening.

End 19. Century

Russification of schools, Authorities, Management – Industrialization.

1905

First Russian Revolution, besonders violently in the Ostseeprovinzen.

1914-1918

The collapse of the Russian and the German Empire in World War II ended, the German supremacy in the Baltic provinces of Estonia, Livonia and Courland.

1918

Declaration of independence in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.

1918-1920

War of liberation against the Red Army with the participation of the German Balts Balts in the regiment (Estonia) and in the Baltic country's military (Latvia).

1920

Recognition of the independence of the republics of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania by the Soviet Union. Emigration wave of German Balts after radical expropriation. Minority rights in the Baltics.

1939

Hitler-Stalin Pact. Resettlement of the German Balts in the areas of Posen and West Prussia in conquered Poland.

1945

Dispersal of the German Balts as a result of the II. World War II. Cohesion of unions in Germany, Europe and overseas.

1944-1990

Occupied and annexed the Baltic Soviet Republics.

21. August 1991

Restoration of independence of the Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania.

 

Digital literature: Historical sources on the history of Livonia, Estonia and Courland

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