History of the family-Hevelke Hewelcke and the astronomer Johannes Hevelius

The earliest news of the family dates back to Hevelke 1434. After the credentials of the city authorities Otter Village, Henry was a Havelke, the man in Danzig Hevelke van der Osten nannte, in Gdansk in 1433 or even died without heirs before. Because he had owned property in Gdansk, it must also be citizens and have been married, because every citizen had to marry. It is thus assumed to be, that Henry had lived many years in Gdansk Havelke. Henry had three more siblings, including Gert Havelke, The money went to his legacy, presumably because the estate had to be divided. Gert settled in Danzig Werder (for distinguishing: there was a lower- and Oberwerder)

The village Stüblau behind the Vistula river was for centuries the most important city of Danzig Werder (Stüblausches Werder called) The Court shall Gert Havelke after 1434 acquired, and his descendants for more than 150 Years lived, comprises about the year 1550 three hooves Culmische best wheat soil. He has not long enjoyed his tenure. In 1444 He was already dead and the court in the hands of another Hevelke probably his son) In 1444 Niklas has the Hovelke in the Hospital of the Holy Spirit Stüblau, at that time probably the richest Ing, 72 Mark borrowed on his farm. Niklas must be dead very soon, because 1448 the Court is in the hands of Peter Hofelke. All this shows, that the family was quite wealthy. The oldest Erbbuch (Mortgage book) Werder began in the Stüblauschen 1660. It contains entries about the farms in Stüblau since 1592. The name comes not from the fact Hevelke, because no handwriting to 1550 back. In 1558 Claus's name appears on Hevelke. He had at least four sons (James, Merten, Gregory and Peter)

Merten Hevelke acquired on 21. February 1565 the citizens- and brewing rights in Danzig. His brewery was a medium-sized operation 1575 one of Malzakise 30 Had Gulden payable. In 1590 He lost his first wife Catharina, He had married a widow. In 1597 heiratInum second time and was in St. Mary married. His wife's name was Anna and was a born Westphal. She bore him a son, The name John was given and 1598 was born. The third son, Gregory received the burgher- and the right to brew beer 10. More 1567. He seems to have created the brewery at the dam or acquired. In 1579 He was not able to pay the required taxes. After the death of his wife, Zander was born a, He married in 1583 again. He died 1612, his widow 1623. From his first marriage he had a son named Gregory, also Brewer and a daughter named Anna. Peter Hovelke *1543 was on 27. March 1574 entered as a clerk in the civil book. He died probably in the year 1604. His son Peter took over his father's business. His death is on the 2. January 1613 held. He left 2 Children.

The life of the astronomer Johannes Hevelius

Hans was born on Hewelcke 28. January 1611 the world at eight-thirty in the morning. At that time, was his grandfather Michel Hoefelke already dead. Ebenfalls gestorben waren schon seine Stiefgeschwister aus der Ehe seines Vaters Abraham mit Concordia, a daughter of Henry Gregor. His older sister Anna was 1609 schon to, hardly 2 Months old. Still alive, his paternal grandmother was, Catherine Hecker and his maternal grandmother Sara nee Kringle, married Brümmer.

John grew up in the same house, His grandfather had been obsessed with Michael, the fourth corner dam and Häkergasse, towards a market hall. He was baptized at St. St. John's Church. With 7 1/4 Years ago he came to school and she has until 1624 visits, apparently not finish it, for the year 1624 in the Catalogus Eiuntragung been made: “school care is broken and the disciples were sent“. That is, The school was closed for some time because of war and plague. Seoine parents sent him to cable then sealed with Bromberg to learn the Polish language.

In a time of religious intolerance and narrow-mindedness has a cosmopolitan sense belonged to, his son in a school suspected of heresy to send. This, however Abraham, when he 1618 his only son to the Calvinist party leaders entrusted. That Father Abraham was not religiously indifferent, He proved in 1636, as he sat under a commitment to the unaltered Augsburg Confession its signature. When John came to the school Hefelke Fabricius was already sick, so that the rector's office was vacant. At that time consisted of five high school classes. 32 Teaching hours per week, it was physically very weak for the boys very stressful and demanding all of his willpower and stamina.

At university he studied law for a year, however, was by his talent and his previous education has so bound up with the astronomy, that the optics and mechanics Fächter his time far more took advantage of. After a year he went to London and visited famous astronomers like James Usker, John Wallis and Samuel Hart loved ones. The young student must have left a lasting impression there, for these visits is to be ascribed, that later on his scientific achievements and his attention was quickly turned much honor and recognition. From London he went to Paris and came into contact with Pierre Gassendi and Bouillaud. Then he traveled to Avignon to the learned Jesuit Kircher kennezulernen. Relations with him were so close, that he whose book “Primitiae Gnomonicae Catoptricae” 1633 the title page of copper stung.

What drove Hevelius on his return in the next few years at home, suggests only. The science of astronomy was temporarily short of essentials. The intention to act as clerk, He apparently had abandoned. However, he made himself in the vast holdings of his father's familiar with the secrets of brewing. With 24 Years, at the 21. March 1635 he entered the married state. His wife was the daughter of the noble Hans Rebeschke, Catharina. He had not chosen his bride from the daughters of the Board related to gender. Catharina on 15. November 1613 Pepper was born in city, came from the family brewery Rebeschke, for which he now took over the management of both. In this connection it should still occur large problems of inheritance.

In 1636 The astronomer was a member of the Brewers Guild. His marriage lasted from 1635-1663 und war oftmals getrübt durch die Kränklichkeit seiner Ehefrau. Als sein Vater 1649 had died, Hevelius combined the three houses and built on the roofs of a large observatory. Gradually, he bought a number of instruments, next lens telescopes and telescopes, with which he examined the surface of the Moon. Hevelius was 1651 Alderman and finally Mayor of Gdansk's Old Town. Since 1639 was his main interest in astronomy, even if he committed his life long issues in urban. 1641 errichtete er ein hervorragend ausgestattetes Observatorium mit einem selbstkonstruierten Teleskop von 45 m Länge. On it goes back a first simple version of the periscope.

After the death of his wife, he married the merchant's daughter Elisabeth Koopmann, with whom he fathered four children. Learned a great honor on Hevelis 30. March 1664, when he became “Fellow of the Royal Society” was chosen. A fire in September, he lost his observatory, his books and his instruments. Hevelius made at once to rebuild, But he did not live to complete. He died on 28. January 1687 in seiner Heimatstadt Danzig. Hevelius is considered one of the largest and most important astronomers of his time, a plaque outside the Town Hall reminds him.


Hevelke: John: Gert Havelke und seine Nachfahren 1434-1927 : History of the family-Hevelke Hewelcke and the astronomer Johannes Hevelius, Danzig: Danziger Publishing Company Paul Rosenberg, 1927


Johannis Hevelii Selenographia Sive, Lunae Descriptio : Accurate Atque, Tam Macularum Eius, Quam Motuum Diversorum, All other alterations, Phasiumque, Telescopii OPE Deprehensarum, Delineatio. Achievements of the others at the same time, in which the faces of all the planets had their birth, variæque Observationes, præsertim autem Macularum solarium [...] sub aspectum ponuntur [...] : He points East, Slow Expoliendi Nova Ratio, Et ut telescoping Different Construendi, Et Experiendi, horumq. Gadget, several Observationes Cælestes, inprimis quidem Eclipsium, Cumulative Solarium, tum Lunarium [...] perspicue explicatur, 1647

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