The ruling class in the Middle Ages

Been employed in the present work is influenced by the author with the question of which individuals and groups through which people Regierungsentschlüsse at various times are. The result is a comprehensive picture of the feudal structure of our nation since the Middle Ages.

The 1875 Born legal historian, Lawyer and author of Otto Dungern I dealt mainly with questions about genealogy and nobility in the right- and constitutional history.

The ruling class of the late Middle Ages coincides with the equestrian, If you're not restricted to individual masters, had received the accolade, but to the families, which these knights had sprung. Chivalry were called to the general outlook for all the sons of princes. The knighthood of the prince's son appears as a kind of religious. The fact that he is qualified by birth for a knighthood, no doubt.

The families of princely rank, their number since the reform of the Imperial Prince of the end item 12. Century was small, are equal to the old comrade Prince. Most families count, had heard before that reform to the next circle of the former imperial princes; The relationship continues to circle the new dynasties were. That this unity not only in intermarriage (Marriage) was maintained, prove the election of kings is not princely families:

“William of Holland, Rudolph of Hapsburg, Adolf of Nassau, Henry of Luxembourg” Counts were made of an ancient tribe and kinship with the most distinguished, but it is not imperial princes. They all had different ancestors by weiblicherseits imperial blood in their veins. The circle of this prince fellow joins the much larger group of “lower nobility” an. The gentry was the real chivalry, not just because he put the great mass of the Knights, but also for him knighthood knighthood and the characteristic of the nobility, the special dignity meant. The class of these gallant Guts- and burghers had formed at the end of the 13. Century, a popular all over Germany as birth.

Therefore, it is also sometimes concealed, that the knighthood included another group of men: Citizen, Urban Men, Patrician, acquired riches were particularly impressive, and thus able to dominate life were moderate, as the small country gentry. A wide gulf separates within the large class of all total chivalrous gentlemen companions of the prince down aristocratic and bourgeois knight.

Since the end of the 11. Century we find in the ranks among witnesses charters two classes of witnesses is usually very clearly separate. The first class includes noblemen, Free Men, Dynasties with and without count, ducal or other title. The other class is that of ministeriales; of unfree people. The separation is in the deeds to about 1150 been carried out almost exactly the same everywhere. The genealogical method to determine the boundary between high and low aristocracy it appears highly questionable. Therefore, it was supplemented by the method to ask for titles.

The old gentleman Title “Dominus” is even for all 12. Century no longer capable of legal history as a negative feature of the dynastic nobility of the ancient princes recognized. The title “Mr., Free, Edeler, Edler” above all, the predicate “nobilis” were up in the 13. Century as a distinctive. (Ficker and Schulte quantify the amount of time to 1250) Clarity about the composition and nature of the feudal unity may yet be won…

The next chapter deals with the Verschwägerungen dynasitscher families in time of 1150 to 1450 between the ruling families of the houses: “Zollern, Wittelsbach, Württemberg, Zähringen, Habsburg, Hesse, Nassau and lip” with the wonderful families unable: “Furstenberg, Isenburg, Leiningen, Ortenburg, Öttingen, Sayn, Solms, Stolberg, Castell, Hohenlohe, Leinigen-Westerburg, Wied, Bentheim and Arenberg“.

Illuminating the position of the individual families intermarried unfree state. Among them were the houses: “Bolanden, Falkenstein, Hohenfels, Urslingen, Rappoltstein, Vineyard, Rechenberg, Waldenburg, Limpurg, Nordenberg, Schoenberg, Hammerstein, Erbach, Kronberg, Kolditz, Blumeneck, Landenberg, Waldeck, Palant, Stommel, etc.“…

We learn the details of dienstmännischen needle in aristocratic convents and monasteries, about alleged to ascend into the high nobility and officials predestined Reichshof Reichsministerialengeschlechter “Pappenheim, Hagenau, Meissen, Dohna, Kolditz, Reuß etc.“…

Furthermore, we read what the Stewards, Give, Officers, and other Reichsministerialen has to be like the “Put, Bodmann or Dortmund” learn about professional impairment, On or about aristocratic marriage as associated with financial- and fall of an Dynastenstammes, about alleged professional surveys in the high nobility, fictitious exemptions (occurred very frequently) and finally an interpretation of the rankings with the distinctions and titles for seals. The individual titles and predicates are very detailed and well explained clearly… Family histories and genealogies of individual families are mentioned in this post here read.

Those:

Otto Freiherr von Dungern: The ruling class in the Middle Ages, Paper Mill S. A.: Publisher Fred Vogt, 1908

Other literature:

The problem of equality, Munich & Leipzig 1905
Succession Law and consanguinity of the German emperors since Charlemagne, Paper mill 1910
The emergence of national sovereignty in Austria, Vienna 1910
Aristocracy in the Middle Ages, Munich 1927
Bavaria as the Austria lost: History of a state law fraud, Graz 1930

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