Every year is determined on which luminaries of science, Poetry, and as for the peace of this world, The Nobel Prizes are awarded. Hardly anyone has better knowledge about this important man, except that even his immense fortune is determined to crown for the most outstanding people.
The brilliant scholar, Engineer and inventor, Nobel, always modest, still, an idealist. He lived a very secluded life for his invention and scientific experiments.
Nobel's ancestors can be in Sweden to the 17. Century to trace. Whether the family has always been resident in Sweden should remain undecided. The name we first met at the end of 17. Century Latinized form, as in Sweden earlier and often still occurs, namely as Nobilius or Nobilius.
It has derived its name from the place name Nöbbelöf and therefore has to seek the origin of sex in all probability in the Skåne countryside. Already the first bearer of this name worked in the learned professions. One was Secretary of the earned Baron Goertz, the supreme minister of Charles XII., the other was to 1700 around a county judge in Uppland.
The latter, Peter Nobilius, born 1660 in Nöbbelöf, died 1707 in Upsala, was the father of Alfred Nobel. He was the son of one of the most important Swedish scholar Olof Rudbeck (1630-1702) of a university professor and his daughter worked at Upsala Wendela Alfred Nobel, the great-grandmother. The marriage of Peter sprang Nobilius 1706 a son after the grandfather was named Olof, and only as a portrait painter in the Stockholm, later worked as an art teacher at the University of his native city, Upsala. Olof Nobilius starb 1760 and left several children, of which the most recent, 1757 born son was named Emanuel. Again, this turned into a learned profession, because he studied medicine and became a city doctor. The Swedish-Russian campaign 1808-1809, ended for Sweden with the painful loss of Finland, Emanuel moved into the field as a surgeon. On this occasion he changed his name to Nobel, because the learned word ending that time was considered to be too theologically and thus saved from numerous individuals.
Already on 24. More 1801 Emanuel was from his marriage to the daughter of Anna Katharina Schiffer Rosell a son born, which was also the name of the Father Emanuel. This younger Emanuel later became the father of Alfred Nobel. Emanuel had 1828 the Virgin Karoline Andrietta Ahlfell (*1803) married, him during the time of the Stockholm three sons, Robert Hjalmar *4.8.1829, Emanuel Ludwig *27.7.1831 and Alfred Bernhard *21.10.1833, which later after moving to St. Petersburg for a fourth child, Oskar Emil *1843 came. The two youngest were the most talented, But while Oskar Emil at a young age a harrowing accident victim fell. The third son, Alfred brought it to high international fame as an engineer, Inventor and man!
He had first visited in Stockholm and later in St. Petersburg, the school, where he distinguished himself by his already excellent voice talent. With 16 Years, he left school at first to be his father's assistant. This preoccupation with the explosive technique showed his professional life forever the direction. 1850 the father sent him to the United States to be trained as a mechanical engineer more. Another four years was Alfred in the stranger where he appeared with his famous compatriot John Ericson (1803-1889) worked, the great naval architect and builder of the warship "Monitor" and the order already 1850 was a respected name.
1854 Alfred Nobel went to his father's house back to Petersburg. (Shortly before the 4. October 1853 between Russia and Turkey was the famous Crimean War broke out) After the Peace of Paris 30. March 1856 The Russian government was their moral duty to the Nobel's factory, which made her such a great service, perhaps Petersburg protected from a bombardment had not in any way to. Emanuel Nobel turned 1859 embittered the ungrateful Zarenreich the back and returned to his native country Sweden. Even in St. Petersburg had Alfred Nobel acquired his first patent. An improvement was concerned at the Gasometer and it was in September 1857 granted. To help launch a new company, it was successful in Paris Alfred raise funds, He with the help of 1861 in the Stockholm suburb Heleneborg one Nitroglyzerinfabrik gave life. It was none other than the Emperor Napoleon III., which gave occasion to this.
The invention of dynamite 1866
As distressing disasters are also, it seemed to the success of the thing itself does not continue to harm. After the 10. October 1864 The Swedish government had ordered the first use of the "Nobel's blasting oil" in the production of a railway tunnel, we went in different countries over this, to use the nitroglycerin. But still the lack of experience in handling with the sinister material was unfortunately occur more disasters. It was an accident, which helped the discovery of dynamite, a blind random, which would be left without any result, if he does not precisely Alfred Nobel would have spurred watch ingenuity. It was in 1866 than that found explosives and gained world fame with the name dynamite. At the 19. September 1867 the explosive was protected by a Swedish patent. Nobel had kept his life strictly by the policy. His thoughts and feelings, it is clear from his letters:
"Light is spread spread prosperity and the prosperity disappears most of the evils, which are an inheritance gloomy times. The conquest of scientific research and their always expanding field awaken in us the hope, that the microbes of the soul as well as the body- gradually disappear, and the only war, which will lead mankind, the war against these microbes be. Then the glorious expression of Bacon, that there are deserts in time, only on more distant past times refer. "
The testament and legacy
The obituaries of the 10. December 1896 San Remo dead in all civilized countries were held with high respect and admiration. Nobel's body was transferred from San Remo to Stockholm to here on 29. By fire to be buried in December (the express will of the deceased) The surviving assets was approximately 36 Million Swedish crowns (= 40 million dollars) Of which were the surviving relatives page some legacies totaling 1 Million to; the next of kin, especially the head of the family nunmehrige Emanuel Nobel in Petersburg, Ludwig Nobel Son, lived in such good conditions, that they could not rely on an inheritance. It was Alfred Nobel possible to determine all his huge fortune in pioneering determination.
The prizes for physics and chemistry shall be awarded by the Swedish Academy of Sciences, for physiological or medical works by the Carolinian Institute in Stockholm, for the peace of works by a 5 Persons existing committee. Overall, it was 355 Patents awarded.
"It is my express wish, that is taken in the allocation of prices no regard for national affiliation, which implies that the prize is awarded to the worthiest, no matter whether he is Scandinavian or not. "
The creation of the Foundation took place in 1900. Since 1901 Nobel's death each year are now at the 5 Prices and distributed annually, the interest of the entire world directed anew to the Nobel Laureate, as this year's Nobel Peace Prize to President Obama rice.
In memory of a great scholar and genius inventor and one of the noblest men in general - Alfred Nobel!
1. Alfred Nobel, Inventor of dynamite. Book Supplement to the Technical Monatshefte 1912, a biographical sketch of Dr.. Richard Henning published by the Technical Monatshefte, Franckh'sche Verlagshandlung Stuttgart
2. Erik Bergengren U.A.: Alfred Nobel. Bechtle 1965.
3. Edelgard Biedermann: Dear Baroness and Amie - Dear sir and friend. The correspondence between Alfred Nobel and Bertha von Suttner. Olms, Göttingen 2001, ISBN 3-487-11492-5.
4. Kenne Fant: Alfred Nobel. Idealist between science and industry. Insel Verlag, Frankfurt a.M. 1997, ISBN 3-458-33804-7.
5. Karl Gruber: Alfred Nobel. The dynamite factory crumbs - the cornerstone of a lifework. Fledge print media, Geesthacht 2001, ISBN 3-923952-11-2.
6. Rune Pär Olofsson: King of dynamite Alfred Nobel. Kiepenheuer, Leipzig 1993, ISBN 3-378-00523-8.
7. Orlando de Rudder: Alfred Nobel (1833–1896). Denoël, Paris 1997.
8. Fritz Vögtle: Alfred Nobel. Self Certification and image documents. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1983