The life and work of the historian John Sinapius (1667-1725)

The presentation of the life of John Sinapius (1667-1725) against the historical background of his family is no easy task. When studying the small publications and notices on this subject, one faces many inconsistencies - After starting with the seemingly simple question of birth- and year of death, for the location of the study and after the complete works.

The opportunity to present a brief genealogy of the family offered a fragment in the first part of the third treatise of Olsnographie about religion in the Duchy Oels. Finally, a catalog of the priest to place names in the duchies of oil, and Bernstadt (Bierutów) created. Sinapius leads to every parish priest, the, in the period between the beginning and the beginning of the Reformation 18. Century have served.

Family history:

Since 1699 was the younger brother of John Sinapius, Daniel, Pastor of the Lutheran parish in Strehlitz (Strzelce). At this point, the author found the occasion to describe his race. As it turned out, The oldest known ancestor was his great-great grandfather - Martin Sinapius, der ca. 1530 in Wartenberg (Otyń) had lived in Silesia. John Sinapius dedicated himself and upheld the local name "Wartenberg" "to Wartemberg", However, he mentioned a few lines further, that the city "in Bergisch green precincts" in the duchy of Glogau (Smelter) is. The city was also Martin's son and also the great grandfather of the author, John Sinapius, born. He did not want to live in Silesia, and was to Zips (then in the northern part of Hungary, Today in Slovakia) moved, where he was pastor in Beckow (Slovak:. Beck) wurde.1 starting from him, most of the male descendants of Protestant pastor.

The son of John and the grandfather of our hero was Michael Sinapius, in Beckow 1595 had come to the world. In 1620 He was a deacon in Bitsche (also Bittse, Slovak:. Bytča) in Slovakia, from where he was superintendent and pastor of the Evangelical Church, Johann Hodikio, had been appointed. The village lies in the valley of the river Vah and since the 16. Jh. belonging to the noble family Tuchorzo. The main residence was the castle in the valley. After some time, Michael Sinapius Hofpfarrer at Count Emerici Thurzo in Bitsche and then in Sučany.

Michael Sinapius heiratete Barbara Lycii, the daughter of Rev. John Lycii from Trenčín (Slovak:. Trencin). She bore him several children, including Daniel. Michael died in 1653. About his father, Daniel Sinapius, writes the creator of Olsnographie, that on 3. September 1640 Born in Sučany. In 1662 He began work as a rector in Eltsch (years. Alnovia, Slovak:. Jelsava), where his wife Catherine, the daughter of the local pastor and Seniors Andrew Majerus, came.
1665 Daniel was a pastor in Sinapius Kamenany, 1667 Also in Bad Liptsch (Slovak:. Liptovská Teplá) im Liptauer Comitat, after, 1670, in Radwan (Slovak:. Radvaň, since 1966 District of Banská Bystrica, Slovak:. Banská Bystrica).

Three years later, also 1673, He fled from Hungary. From the data in the first part of Olsnographie learns, that Daniel Sinapius in 1677 Rector of the newly established school in Bojanowo (New Bojanów, years. Neo-Bojanoviensis) was. 1683 He was called back to cycling. At the 1. May the same year he moved to Levoča (Slovak:. Levoča, years. Leutsovia), where he worked as a pastor and finally on 27. January 1688 at 2 Clock died.

Coat of arms description:

The information about the uncle of the author appears with the note, that Emperor Ferdinand III. at the 25. More 1654 had given the brothers John and Daniel Sinapius and their descendants the title of nobility and a coat of arms. The coat of arms shows a deer with wings, runs in a natural color with its mouth open with green grass and blue sky in the background to the sun. Above the shield is a crowned helmet, Kronekleinod and the crescent is with raised hands. The deciduous plants are on the right side blue, yellow and white and red on the left.

The details of his younger brother Daniel (named after the name of the Father), John makes the Sinapius, are very modest. One can only read, that he is the brother of John, dem Rektor in Oels, and was at the 27. October 1670 in Radwan (Hungary) was born. It follows, that the father had worked before mid-October this year as pastor. The second and last information about the brother refers to a vacancy in the parish Strehlitz (Duchy Oels), the most of it 3. July 1699 was occupied.

Brief information about yourself John Sinapius is the second part of Olsnographie, the chapter on the Prince's School and their teachers in Oels. At the mention of his moment in the text of the current employment creation, namely, the work as rector of the illustrious school in Oels, he writes, that on 11. September 1667 in Teplá (Hungary) was born. In the next set of un- He underlines, that he himself can not say anything Detailed. However, Sinapius documented details about his work in high school. One can learn from it, that on 28. June 1692, when he 25 was, the place of the vice-rector and librarian was, with the salary of the last rector, Melchior Schmegner, in March 1692 The small parish in Ellguth (Small Ligota) oil, and not far from his office in Raake (Crayfish) had taken. Eight years after his arrival in Oels, at the 20. July 1700, He was the Duke Christian Ulrich I. appointed Rector of the school. He admits, that the prince appreciated his zeal and enthusiasm, and entrusted to him for eighteen months informing his two sons. Sinapius was also proud, that Christian way, the famous rector of Zittau (Zittau), congratulated him. Thus, the information about the family and himself, his, John cites the Sinapius in Olsnographie.

To add to the left by John Sinapius information about his grandfather Michael Sinapius-Horčička, mention must be, that he had been educated at the prestigious school in Bitsche. He began teaching in 1614 and then studied with the support of Count Emerici Thurzo in Wittenberg. As a pastor in Sučany he successfully fought in the church and ran 1652 for the Office of the Superintendent. Except in the parish, he became involved in theological disputes. In his study published Michael Sinapius Horčički-two essays and translations in the following years the religious tracts from German into Czech. Together with his wife, Barbara, he raised two sons and three daughters.

The eldest son - John Sinapius-Horčička, in the literature as John the Elder Sinapius known - was the uncle of our author, on the little information can be found in the Olsnographie. We only know, that on 1. November 1625 in Oravský Podzámok (at the foot of the Orava Castle) was born. He received his education in Eperies (Slovak:. Prešov), Königsberg (Konigsberg) und Thorn (Torun). After returning to Zips, he began work as a teacher in Banowitz (Slovak:. Bánovce over Bebravou) and then as rector of the school in Freistadt at the Waag (Slovak:. Hlohovec). By the time he was, like his grandfather and his father, Pfarrer in Skalitz (Slovak:. Vitriol, 1652-1655), in Velična (1655-1661), in Trentschin (1662-1668), in Bries (Slovak:. Brezno, 1668) and again in Freistadt at the Waag (1669-1672).

As the Counter-Reformation in Hungary in 1673 had increased, he refused to convert to Catholicism, which brought the departure of Zips and the emigration of the whole family with him. At first he lived in Görlitz (Zgorzelec), but then he moved (probably in 1677 or 1679) according to Hall, where he died on 6. August 1682 during an epidemic starb.9 reputation he gained as a humanist, as a writer of the baroque and author of pedagogical and theological treatises. In the publications by 1673 He added his name to comment "Exule Hungarico" or "Exule from Hungary", So the "Hungarian exile" to. Recognition earned him a job, the character of the good ruler devoted war10, a work of art hunting and many other publications, including the, part of which was his nephew and namesake falsely attributed.

Gifted than John was the younger son of Michael Sinapius-Horčička, in the literature as Daniel or Daniel Sinapius-Horčička Sinapius the Elder is known. The information provided by his son John in the first part of Olsnographie information can complement one, that he was educated in Zilina (Slovak:. Žilina), in Levoča (Zips), the most important evangelical center in Slovakia, and received a degree in Wittenberg. Like his older brother, he worked first as a teacher and 1662 then as rector in Eltsch, where his wife Catherine came. Over time he became more parishes, to - like his brother - the conversion to Catholicism in 1673 and refuse to go into exile with his family.

The majority of the traditions is to, that he has moved directly from biking to Poland, However, one can also find information, that he had come to Silesia, and from there only in Brieg and 1674 lived in Breslau hatte.14 In 1677 Daniel Fuhr nach Bojanowo, The small town on the border between Silesia and Great Poland, by Wladyslaw IV. Of Wasa and Stefan Bojanowski, a Lutheran nobles from Poland, was founded. The city had grown rapidly thanks to the refugees of other faiths, in the Thirty Years' War because of religious persecution in Bohemia and Silesia, and in later times - had fled from Hungary - as in the case of Daniel Sinapius. He got a job there as rector in a rapidly evolving evangelical school in Poland and led by Joseph Jirecek this school into a golden age. After ten years of exile, he returned 1683 after cycling in Hungary and moved back a year later after Leutschau to, where he was pastor, Inspector of the Protestant grammar school and at the same editor and proofreader in the printing house was related to the family Breworov.

The writing John's father secured a recognized place in the Slovak culture. He was counted among the talented Slovak poets of the Baroque period, who wrote in Latin. Daniel wrote Horčička Sinapius-expressive poetry and plays for use at school. The beginnings of his work can been dated to his student days. The first poems were in 1660 published. His major works include Latino-Neoforum slavonicum18, a collection of 558 Slovak proverbs and sayings, also a defense of the Slovak language was, und Perlička ditek božich, a catechism in Czech, where he was to separate the Czech and Slovak language and to use these languages ​​in publications called. In 1686 was the next band of poetry Domus grove - Moesta Nain published. In Bojanowo period he also wrote educational works, especially for school plays. His literary achievements also include translations into Slovak, among other things, from the Latin (Text von Johann Amos Comenius). In this introduction to the biography of John Sinapius are emerging strong literary traditions of his family.

In his own words he was on 11. September 1667 Born the first son of Daniel and Catherine Sinapius primo voto Majer. He was born in Bad Liptsch, Located in the former Liptauer Comitat of what was then Hungary, today in Okres Ružomberok within the Žilinský kraj in northern Slovakia is. In this village, his father was pastor. Some authors give false, ten years earlier that John, at the 11. September 1657, was born. Be the first to mention this earlier, Johann Christian Leuschner birth in addition to the work of Johann Heinrich Cunrad Silesia togata (with CVs of Silesian writers). According to Leuschner repeated this error, other. The frequent change of the parish of his father and leaving Hungary were the causes, that John had to go with his parents and younger brother Daniel the residence several times and know the misery of expulsion, such as the famous historian of the Silesian 19. and 20. Century, Margrave Hermann, noted in Sinapius CV. So his father taught him self first. Only after arriving in Silesia, he attended the Gymnasium in Brieg, by Hall and then later in the year 1686 to study in Leipzig, where he earned a master's degree in philosophy. Siegismund Justus Ehrhardt, there is other information, namely, that John completed his studies in Jena, where he thanks the former professor Johann Andreas Bose, Caspar Sagittarius and Andreas Schmidt, his interest in history, Chronology and genealogy discovered. Lowest rates, it is difficult to determine the last note. We do not know, thus, John worked after graduation.

Many university graduates began as a tutor, However, there is no certainty at Sinapius. An information is not reported in his biography on his return to Hungary, to follow his parents, but he came from Saxony to Silesia. There - as we know from the second part of Olsnographie - he came into effect on 28. June 1692 the place from the Dean and the librarian at the school in Oels to. Since he took over this function and opted for the home Oels, He returned to his de facto Silesian roots. After two years, at the 2. November 1694, married John Sinapius, aged 27 Years, Maria Elisabeth Titz, the only daughter of the princely Obersteuereinnehmers and accountant Balthasar Titz. The marriage was immortalized in an occasional piece, in the wedding greetings and poems u. a. Martin Hanke, the Breslau school inspector and headmaster of the Grammar School St. Elizabeth and at the same time eminent historian, by Pastor John Kwakbolinski, were printed by Archdeacon Caspar Dohring and other. He and his wife spent the rest of his life. They had six children, of whom Daniel was a doctor and lawyer John. Mary Elizabeth lived for another thirty years after the death of her husband and died in 1755. John completed the family history nor, that his brother Daniel, five years after John, So in 1699, settled in Oels, and - as mentioned above - and then pastor in Strehlitz Lutzine (Łuczyna) was. Daniel Sinapius also followed the family tradition, conducted research and published many medical and meteorological work. Furthemore earbeitete and he published together with the pastor from pig Masłów), Hermann Leonard David, a map of the Duchy of oil with the itle Tabula Geographic Ducatus Olsnensis. In 1700 John was Sinapius the Rector of the school promoted, what he says in the second part of Olsnographie.

The rector of the author practiced Olsnographie 17 Years from, However, he erfiel - like Hermann Adalbert Kraffert in his work on the history of the school reports - in recent years into an incurable melancholy, a sudden death on 5. October 1725 (when he 58 Years old) caused. Johann Christian Leuschner, Johann Heinrich Zedler, Gottlieb Justus Fox and Ehrhardt indicate, that Sinapius in 1726 had died.


John Sinapius (Andere variant des Namens: Mustard, Senfft, Sinapius- Horčička) belonged to an old, Silesian trunk, of the beginnings of 16. Goes back centuries. His great-grandfather was, however, according to Zips (then in the northern part of Hungary, Today in Slovakia) moved. In 1673 Daniel war, der Vater of Autors, fled because of religious persecution in Hungary and Silesia or. then moved to Poland. In Silesia, spent his first-born son, John Sinapius (d. Younger) on the 11. September 1667 in Bad Liptsch (Slovak:. Warm) was born in the former Liptauer Comitat of what was then Hungary, his life. After graduating high school in Brieg, and after studying at Halle and Leipzig, he went on 28. June 1692 the place of the vice-rector and librarian at the high school in Prince of Oels. Two years later, aged 27 Years, heiratete er Mary Elizabeth Titz, who came from Oels. With his wife he spent the rest of his life, and they had six children, of whom Daniel was a doctor and lawyer John. In 1700 John was rector of the gymnasium Sinapius transported in Oels. In addition, he occupied himself still with the school library, and a half years he was tutor to the sons of Duke Friedrich Karl Ulrich and Christian. After eight years, at the 14. More 1708, He took the offer, over as principal in the United Princely and Municipal School in Legnica (years. Schola Ducalis Senatorial) to compete, the far more highly regarded than the high school in Oels enjoyed. He held this 17 Years until his death on 5. October 1725 (when he 58 Years old) from. The recognition of his contemporaries and the memory of his offspring earned him his literary works, and especially the historiography. The capability to carry out research and literary work he inherited from his grandfather, Father and uncle.

In the center of his interests were history and genealogy. Shortly after arriving in oil, he began extensive studies on the history of the Duchy Oelsnischen. The basis for the deliberations and research was the reading of older works, The notes to the dukedom contained. Sinapius was limited, however, not only on the known and published sources, but also led an independent investigation by Source. The results of these studies, the two-volume publication entitled Olsnographia, Description of Actual or Oelßnischen principality in Lower Silesia ..., which was published in Leipzig and Frankfurt, and a chronicle of oil, and the Duchy is Oelsnischen. The following years of his life devoted to the study of John Sinapius Silesian noble history. He had started during the writing of the first plant, and he had written a collection of noble families residing in the Duchy Oelsnischen. In this context, he was a pioneer for regional genealogical research. In 1720 the first volume of Silesian curiosities first performance, in it the respectable families of the Silesian nobility ... printed. Published after his death 1728 The second volume Another part of the Silesian nobility or continuation Silesian curiosities in Leipzig. These two very carefully, through careful study of the sources elaborated books offered a never before seen plenty of messages.


  1. Olsnographiae, or: Description of Oelßnischen principality in Lower Silesia, Part 1-2, Leipzig and Frankfurt 1706-1707 (some long loading time)
    (Above biography on Sinapius (in the opening credits of the work) translated comes from Lucyna Harc and was Dalia Żminkowska)
  2. Silesian Curiositaten first show in it the respectable families of the Silesian nobility, Leipzig 1720
  3. Another part of the Silesian nobility or continuation Silesian curiosities, Leipzig 1728

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