In his contribution Ancestors samples in the early modern period Klaus Graf quotes from his article "Ancestry" in: Encyclopedia of the Modern Age, ed. Frederick Hunter, Bd. 1, Stuttgart 2005, Sp. 146-14...
The ancestors of the sample was credited with the presentation of the origin of four, eight, sixteen, etc.. noble ancestors (Needle sample). That was especially important in the German-speaking ancestry a normative instrument of exclusion, should insulate the domestic cooperative or an institutional space from unwanted intruders.
When the ancestors of the sample in the form "Aufschwörung" had the subjects and witnesses under oath, the origin (Noble birth and marriage of the Ancients, often combined with other features such as pen-regularity, Belonging to the kingdom of knights, or the German nation) confirm. Thus defended aristocratic institutions such as corporations or Domstifte Knights to promoted from the middle class, particular Letter to the needle, against the members of urban Patriziati, the city as a noble equality with the landed gentry aspired, or foreign country against nobles. Due to the negative sanction of misalliances (not befitting a marriage harm the offspring of an ancestry as subjects) served at the same time maintaining the homogeneity of corporative.
In other European countries, there were ancestors samples (mostly to four ancestors), so in the France of the Ancien Régime, where it is in 18. Century under the impression of a "réaction aristocratique" was a strong revitalization of old aristocratic values. To a comparative study would, how they have behaved ancestral practice samples, and other forms of proof of nobility to each other…
With this line I want the four volumes “German needle samples from the Order's Central Archive” introduced by Leopold Nedopil, which are available for download. You published by Wilhelm Müller brewery in Vienna 1868.
Leopold Nedopil *7.7.1819 in Znojmo (Znojmo, Moravia) +20.2.1883 was in Vienna 1842 ordained a priest, performed the duties of a novice master of the knights and novices in particular the Office of the Archivist of the Teutonic Knights Central Archive in Vienna. As an archivist was Nedopil for the cataloging of the many responsible ancestors samples.
German nobility sample Bd. 3 (Register)
German nobility sample Bd. 4 (Supplement)
Needle in the network (of the outline to complete family genealogies)
Ancestral samples at farmers, then in some parts of Germany but quite common, if somebody is recording his children in guilds etc. wanted to ensure.
Longer, Edmund Carl: Suspect- and needle sample, the acquisition, Confirmation and the loss of the right needle, Vienna: Friedrich Manz 1862 (Download)
F.v. Klocke, West German ancestors samples in the most solemn manner 16. 17. and 18. Century, 1940
H. Lönnecker, The ancestry and their heraldic and genealogical conditions, in: P. Back (Ed), Mabillons Spur, 1992, S. 367-387
Playing with the oath, Deutsches Museum. 1776-88. , 1784, 2.Bd., S. 475 – 476
About the needle sample in Germany, Stats Show. 1782-93. , 1785, 8.Bd., S. 185 – 209
Needle test for officer, Ephemeris of humanity , 1782, 1.Bd., S. 375 – 375
Strange nobility of the French sample Maltheserritter, Ephemeris of humanity , 1778, 9.St., S. 112 – 113
Description of the customs, the bey of Aufschwörung, the accolade, and the Germans outfitting a high in the Order of Knights… Göttingisches historical magazine. 1787-91. , 1790, 6.Bd., S. 513 – 521
Monuments and ancestral tablets in the Rhineland and Westphalia by Anton flag
Bd. 2: Aufschwörungen Bergische knighthood; The sex Tenckinck, Dusseldorf 1878
Bd. 3: Aufschwörungen the knighthood of the Duchy of Cleves, Dusseldorf 1879
Bd. 4: Aufschwörung jülischen of knighthood, Aufschwörungen the ladies pen Oberndorf, Dusseldorf 1880
Bd. 5: Aufschwörungen jülischen of knighthood, Dusseldorf 1882